Studies in dating bruising in elderly
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Except where otherwise stated, drug dosages and recommendations are for the non-pregnant adult who is not breastfeeding.
Additionally, there are diseases that affect the connective tissue and integrity of the blood vessel, making the skin bruise more easily and vessels more prone to bleed.
A = consistent, good-quality patient-oriented evidence; B = inconsistent or limited-quality patient-oriented evidence; C = consensus, disease-oriented evidence, usual practice, expert opinion, or case series.
These include type of tissue injured (loose tissue bruises earlier), mechanism of injury, length, duration of force, depth of injury (superficial bruises appear earlier), skin color, health status of the patient, medications (anticoagulants, antiplatelet agents, steroids), and age. Color may help determine “early” or “late” bruising, but more precise timing on color alone is simply not accurate.
Some studies do indicate that yellow will not appear in a bruise until at least 18–24 hours after an injury. Riviello is professor of emergency medicine at Drexel Emergency Medicine in Philadelphia.
Further cases have been reported where bruising was a “sentinel injury” in children prior to the recognition of child abuse, highlighting the importance of recognising abnormal patterns of bruising in young infants.
Abrasions and Lacerations Potential forensic markers include the presence of abrasions and lacerations but age-related changes may also account for them.
As humans age skin thickness and elasticity decline making them more susceptible to trauma.
In cases of suspected bleeding disorders, initial laboratory evaluations should include a complete blood count with platelet count, peripheral blood smear, prothrombin time, and partial thromboplastin time.
More specialized yet relatively simple tests, such as the Platelet Function Analyzer-100, mixing studies, and inhibitor assays, may also be helpful.